It is known that weak rocks feature bulking under disintegration or extra loosening. As a result, the majority of the physical properties of rocks change their values. The article shows that bulking of rocks depends on the nature of rock failure, genesis, moisture and ice contents, initial grain size compositions, as well as time of being in loose state, and other factors. In order to have more accurate data on the change in the volume of rocks, it is necessary to take into account the coefficient of loosening in dry and wet rocks, K1 and Klw , and coefficient of swelling in unripped and ripped rocks,Ksw and Krsw, respectively, in real time. It is found that rocks, despite their condition, obey the equalityK1Krsw = KlwKsw. This equality is used as the basis for the integrated loosening–swelling factor proposed for the assessment of loose rock volume using experimental data.


Rock, soil, loosening, moisture, swelling, shrinkage.

Issue number: 2
Year: 2019
ISBN: 622.02:552(045)
DOI: 10.25018/0236-1493-2019-02-0-206-213
Authors: Yanchenko G. А.

About authors: Yanchenko G.А., Doctor of Technical Sciences, Professor, Mining Institute, National University of Science and Technology «MISiS», 119049, Moscow, Russia.


1. Razdel 2. Gornotekhnicheskie faktory. 21. Kharakteristiki gornykh porod [Section 2. Mining factors. 21. Characteristics of rocks], available at: (accessed 16.01.2018).

2. Kornev S. A., Gadaev N. R., Pluzhnik G. N. Sbornik vspomogatel'nykh materialov dlya razrabotki posobiya po rekul'tivatsii zemel', narushaemykh v protsesse razrabotki kar'erov i stroitel'stva avtomobil'nykh dorog [Collection of supporting materials for the development of manuals on land reclamation, disturbed in the process of quarrying and road construction], Moscow, Soyuzdorproekt, 2000, 122 p.

3. Porody gornye. Terminy i opredeleniya. GOST R 50544-93. Vveden vpervye; Vved. 31.03.93 [Rocks mountain. Terms and definitions. Introduced for the first time; 31.03.93], Moscow, Izd-vo standartov, 1993, 47 p.

4. Rzhevskiy V. V., Novik G. Ya. Osnovy fiziki gornykh porod: uchebnik dlya vuzov, 4-e izd. [Fundamentals of rock physics: Textbook for high schools, 4th edition], Moscow, Nedra, 1984, 359 p.

5. Lomtadze V. D. Fiziko-mekhanicheskie svoystva gornykh porod. Metody laboratornykh issledovaniy: Uchebnoe posobie dlya vuzov. 2-e izd. [Physical and mechanical properties of rocks. Methods of laboratory research: Higher educational aid2nd edition], Leningrad, Nedra, 1990, 328 p.

6. Gal'perin A. M., Zaytsev V. S., Norvatov Yu. A. Gidrogeologiya i inzhenernaya geologiya: uchebnik dlya vuzov [Norvatov Hydrogeology and engineering geology: Textbook for high schools], Moscow, Nedra, 1989, 383 p.

7. Rzhevskiy V. V. Protsessy otkrytykh gornykh rabot: uchebnik dlya vuzov. 2-e izd. [Open-pit mining Processes: Textbook for high schools. 2nd edition], Moscow, Nedra, 1974, 520 p.

8. Nurok G. A. Protsessy i tekhnologiya gidromekhanizatsii otkrytykh gornykh rabot: uchebnik dlya vuzov, 3-e izd. [Processes and technology of dredging of surface mining: Textbook for high schools, 3rd edition], Moscow, Nedra, 1985, 471 p.

9. Gornaya entsiklopediya. Gl. red. Kozlovskiy, T. 4. Ortin — Sotsiosfera [Mountain encyclopedia. Kozlovskiy E.A. (Ed.), vol. 4. Ortin — Sociosphere], Moscow, Sov. entsiklopediya, 1989, 623 p.

10. Kovalenko V. V., Ryazantsev A. P. Obosnovanie parametrov sposoba bor'by s pucheniem porod pochvy v usloviyakh ugol'nykh shakht: monografiya [Substantiation of the parameters of the method of struggle rocks of soil in the conditions of coal mines: monograph], Днепропетровск, Dnepropetrovsk, Natsional'nyy gornyy universitet, 2013, 119 p.

11. Franklin J. A. (Coordinator) Suggested methods for determining water content, porosity, density, absorption and related properties and swelling and slake durability index properties. Int. J. Rock Mech. Min. Sci. & Geomech. Abstr., 1979, Vol. 16, No.2, pp. 141—156.

12. Madsen F. T., Müller-Vonmoss M. The swelling behaviour of clay. Applied Clay Science 4, 1989, pp. 143—156.

13. Franklin J. A. A ring swell test for measuring swelling and shrinkage characteristicsof rock. Int. J. Rock Mech. Min. Sci. & Geomech. Abstr., 1984, Vol. 21, No.3, pp. 113—121.

14. Einstein H. Suggested methods for laboratory testing of argillaceous swelling rocks. Int. J. Rock Mech. Min. Sci. & Geomech. Abstr., 1989, Vol. 26, No.5, pp. 415—426.

Subscribe for our dispatch