Classification of open pit mining technologies

Authors: Rakishev B

The literature on geotechnical engineering often uses the concepts of exploitation of mineral deposits and mineral mining as synonyms. A mining technology is also often presented as a system of mining. These incorrect interpretations preventing improvement of process framework for geotechnologies can be barred by using a systemic approach to studying aspects of geotechnologies. The key concepts of geotechnologies belong to different rather than the same levels of hierarchy. An open pit mining system can be defined as an aggregate of interdependent and interrelated preparation, access and production openings advanced in time and in space of an open-pit field intended for extraction of rocks from the subsurface. The elements of an open pit mining system are specified. It is shown that this aggregate of openings is an envelope of a mining technology, i.e., the mining system is an environment inside which a mining technology functions. This is the differentiation between a mining system and a mining technology. Structurally, an open pit mining technology consists of two elements: mining-and-loading and haulage. The principal characteristic of a technology is the continuity of extraction–loading–handling of rocks and the method of haulage. These features should define the form and contents of a classification system for open pit mining technologies. With these two features considered jointly, the technologies are divisible into cycle production with direct dumping, cyclic, cyclical-and-continuous, continuous-and-cyclical and continuous flow processes. The highest rate of production is ensured by the cyclical method with direct dumping and by the continuous flow process. The lower level of efficiency is provided with the cyclical-and-continuous and continuous-and-cyclical technologies of mineral mining. The cyclical open pit mining technology is prevalent. The promising mining technologies use unconventional methods of rock preparation, extraction, loading, haulage and storage.

Keywords: mineral mining system, open pit mining technology, mining system elements, mining technology features, mining technology types, open pit mining technology classification.
For citation:

Rakishev B. R. Classification of open pit mining technologies. MIAB. Mining Inf. Anal. Bull. 2020;(3):5-15. [In Russ]. DOI: 10.25018/0236-1493-2020-3-0-5-15.

Acknowledgements:
Issue number: 3
Year: 2020
Page number: 5-15
ISBN: 0236-1493
UDK: 622.271.4
DOI: 10.25018/0236-1493-2020-3-0-5-15
Article receipt date: 29.11.2019
Date of review receipt: 19.12.2019
Date of the editorial board′s decision on the article′s publishing: 20.02.2020
About authors:

B.R. Rakishev, Academician of NAS of the Republic of Kazakhstan, Dr. Sci. (Eng.), Professor, e-mail: b.rakishev @mail.ru, K.I. Satpayev Kazakh National Research Technical University, Almaty, Kazakhstan,

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