Severity of drainage system exposure to ore processing waste based on computer modeling

Authors: Kemkin I. V., Kemkina R. A.

Extensive subsoil use for many decades for satisfaction of increasingly growing economic requirements has resulted in accumulation of gigantic volume of mining and processing waste on the ground surface. Overburden dumps, low-grade ore stockpiles and tailings pose a grave threat to the environment. As a result of various supergene processes, this waste decomposes; highly-mineralized pore solutions appear, flow with drainage water and bring a wide spectrum of chemicals, including toxic elements, to the environment. Based on the computer modeling of physicochemical transformation of mineral processing waste in terms of the skarn complex deposits in the Dalnegorsk area (Primorye), as well as from thermodaynamic calculation of the behavior of natural chemical compounds under condition of hypergenesis, the qualitative composition and quantitative formula are determined for mineralized pore solutions in drainage water in local drainage systems. These solutions are dominated by ionic and complex forms of such elements as As, Pb, Zn, Cd, Se, Sb, Bi, Cu and other, at concentrations tens and hundreds times higher than the maximum allowable values. Computer modeling of supergene transformation of ore processing waste allows prompt qualitative and qualitative assessment of probable pollution in the area of tailings storage and, consequently, enables sound environmental measures to be undertaken to mitigate the ecological impact.


Keywords: Ore processing waste, hypergenesis, mineral destruction, mineralized solutions, toxic elements, ecological risk.
For citation:

Kemkin I. V., Kemkina R. A. Severity of drainage system exposure to ore processing waste based on computer modeling . MIAB. Mining Inf. Anal. Bull. 2019;(11):94-105. [In Russ]. DOI: 10.25018/0236-1493-2019-11-0-94-105.


Issue number: 11
Year: 2019
Page number: 94-105
ISBN: 0236-1493
UDK: 553.44 + 502/504
DOI: 10.25018/0236-1493-2019-11-0-94-105
Article receipt date: 11.03.2019
Date of review receipt: 09.10.2019
Date of the editorial board′s decision on the article′s publishing: 10.10.2019
About authors:

I.V. Kemkin1, Dr. Sci. (Geol. Mineral.), Professor, е-mail:;
Head of Laboratory, Far Eastern Geological Institute, Far Eastern Branch
of Russian Academy of Sciences, 680022, Vladivostok, Russia,
R.A. Kemkina1, Cand. Sci. (Geol. Mineral.), Assistant Professor,
1 Engineering School of Far Eastern Federal University, 690950, Vladivostok, Russia.

For contacts:

R.A. Kemkina, e-mail:


1. Laskorin B. N., Barskiy L. A., Persii V. Z. Bezotkhodnaya tekhnologiya mineral'nogo syr'ya. Sistemnyy analiz [Безотходная технология минерального сырья. Системный анализ], Moscow, Nedra, 1984, 320 p.
2. Bozhenov P. I. Kompleksnoe ispol'zovanie mineral'nogo syr'ya i ekologiya [Complex use of mineral raw materials and ecology], Moscow, Izd-vo ASV, 1994, 264 p.
3. Chanturiya V. A., Chaplygin N. N., Vigdergauz V. E. The strategy of reducing, reusing and recycling mining waste in research of the Russian Academy of Sciences. Sovremennye problemy kompleksnoy pererabotki prirodnogo i tekhnogennogo mineral'nogo syr'ya [Modern problems of complex processing of natural and man-made mineral raw materials], Saint-Petersburg, Izd-vo Roza mira, 2005, pp. 230—235.
4. Chanturiya V. A., Vigdergauz V. E. Innovative technologies for processing technogenic mineral raw materials. Gornyy zhurnal. 2008, no 6, pp. 71—74. [In Russ].
5. Trubetskoy K. N., Chanturiya V. A., Kaplunov D. R., Ryl'nikova M. V. Kompleksnoe osvoenie mestorozhdeniy i glubokaya pererabotka mineral'nogo syr'ya [Complex development of deposits and deep processing of mineral raw materials], Moscow, Nauka, 2010, 437 p.
6. Abramov A. A. Ways of development of the theory of enrichment processes and creation of innovative technologies for the integrated use of raw materials. Fiziko-tekhnicheskiye problemy razrabotki poleznykh iskopayemykh. 2012, no 1, pp. 165—178. [In Russ].
7. Tverdov A. A., Zhura A. V., Sokolova M. A. Problems of the integrated use of mineral resources and the development of technogenic deposits. Ratsional'noe osvoenie nedr. 2013, no 5, pp. 16—20. [In Russ].
8. Trubetskoy K. M., Umanets V. N., Nikitin M. B. Classification of technogenic deposits, main categories and concepts. Gornyy zhurnal. 1989, no 2, pp. 6—9. [In Russ].
9. Makarov A. B. Technogenic deposits of mineral raw materials. Sorosovskiy obrazovatel'nyy zhurnal. 2000. Vol. 6, no 8, pp. 76—80. [In Russ].
10. Komarov M. A., Aliskerov V. A., Kusevich V. I., Zavertkin V. L. Mining and industrial wastes as an additional source of mineral raw materials. Mineral'nye resursy Rossii: ekonomika i upravlenie. 2007, no 4, pp. 3—9. [In Russ].
11. Bogatikov O. A., Bortnikov N. S., Dokuchaev A. YA., Gurbanov A. G., Karamurzov B. S. Technogenic mineral deposits: main aspects at the present stage (using the example of the Tyrnyauz deposit). Doklady akademii nauk. 2014. Vol. 456, no 2, pp. 213—218. [In Russ].
12. Davydova S. L. On the toxicity of metal ions. Khimiya. 1991, no 3, pp. 48—57. [In Russ].
13. Sakharova M. S., Kitaenko A. E., Ryabov A. N. Forms of finding and features of accumulation of environmentally potentially harmful elements in the fields of the gold-silver formation of the North-East of Russia. Vestnik Moskovskogo universiteta. Seriya 4: Geologiya. 1994, no 2, pp. 55—62. [In Russ].
14. Karpov I. K., Kiselev A. I., Letnikov F. A. Modelirovanie prirodnogo mineraloobrazovaniya na EVM [Modeling of natural mineral formation on a computer], Moscow, Nedra, 1976, 255 p.
15. Karpov I. K. Fiziko-khimicheskoe modelirovanie na EVM v geokhimii [Physical and chemical modeling on a computer in geochemistry], Novosibirsk, Nauka, 1981, pp. 372—383.
16. Matveev L. A. Experimental and theoretical substantiation of the mechanism of interaction of water with the rock during weathering. Kora vyvetrivaniya i gipergennoe rudoobrazovanie [Weathering crust and hypergene mineralization], Moscow, Nauka, 1977, pp. 123—132.
17. Kashik S. A., Karpov I. K. Main problems of the physicochemical theory of irreversible processes of mineral formation in the weathering crust. Kora vyvetrivaniya i gipergennoe rudoobrazovanie [Weathering crust and hypergene mineralization], Moscow, Nauka, 1977, pp. 87—99.
18. Kaz'min L. A. Calculation of chemical equilibria and refinement of thermodynamic constants by the method of minimizing the free energy in the H2S-H20 system. Fiziko-khimiya endogennykh protsessov [Physico-Chemistry of Endogenous Processes], Novosibirsk, Nauka, 1979, pp. 190—209.
19. Khorn R. Morskaya khimiya [Marine chemistry], Moscow, Mir, 1972, 398 p.
20. Robie R. A., Hemingway B. S. Thermodynamic Properties of Minerals and Related Substances at 298.1, K and 1 Bar (105 Pascals) Pressure and at Higher Temperatures. U.S. Geol. Surv. Bull. 1995. No. 2131 461 p.
21. Charykova M. V., Krivovicheva V. G., Depmeirb W. Thermodynamics of Arsenates, Selenites, and Sulfates in the Oxidation Zone of Sulfide Ores: I. Thermodynamic Constants at Ambient Conditions. Geology of Ore Deposits. 2010. Vol. 52. No. 8. pp. 689—700.
22. Elpat'evskaya V. P. Interaction of sub-basement waters of polymetallic deposits with the waters of local river runoff. Geografiya i prirodnye resursy. 1997, no 2, pp. 57—62. [In Russ].
23. Arzhanova B. C. Effect of mining technogenesis on river waters. Geografiya okruzhayushchey sredy. 2010, no 1, pp. 40—44. [In Russ].
24. Castro-Larragoitia J., Kramar U., Monroy-Ferna´ndez M. G., Viera-De´cida F., Garcı´a-Gonza´lez E. G. Heavy metal and arsenic dispersion in a copper-skarn mining district in a Mexican semi-arid environment: sources, pathways and fate. Environment Earth Science. 2013. Vol. 69. pp. 1915—1929.
25. Carvalho P. C. S., Neiva A. M. R., Silva M. M. V. G., Antunes I. M. H. R. Metal and metalloid leaching from tailings into streamwater and sediments in the old Ag—Pb—Zn Terramonte mine,
northern Portugal. Environment Earth Science. 2014. Vol. 71. pp. 2029—2041.
26. Esteller M. V., Domı´nguez-Mariani E., Garrido S. E., Avile´s M. Groundwater pollution by arsenic and other toxic elements in an abandoned silver mine, Mexico. Environment Earth Science.
2015. Vol. 74. pp. 2893—2906.
27. Ovodova E. V., Tarasenko I. A., Nagornova N. A., Sal'nikova L. A. Geochemistry of tailings of the Krasnorechensk enrichment plant (Dalnegorsky district, Primorsky Krai). Vestnik Dal’nevostochnogo otdeleniya Rossiyskoy akademii nauk. 2016, no 5, pp. 43—51. [In Russ].
28. Sağlam E. S., Akçay M. Chemical and mineralogical changes of waste and tailings from Murgul Cu deposits (Artvin, NE Turkey): implications for occurrence of acid mine drainage. Environmental
Science and Pollution Research. 2016. Vol. 23. pp. 6584—6607.
29. Palapa T. M., Maramis A. A. Heavy metals in water of stream near an amalgamation tailing ponds in Talawaan—Tatelu gold mining, North Sulawesi, Indonesia. Procedia Chemistry. 2015.
Vol. 14. pp. 428—436.
30. Tarasenko I. A., Zin'kov A. V. Ekologicheskie posledstviya mineralogo-geokhimicheskikh preobrazovaniy khvostov obogashcheniya Sn-Ag-Pb-Zn rud [Ecological consequences of mineralogical and geochemical transformations of the tailings of Sn-Ag-Pb-Zn ores], Vladivostok, Dal'nauka, 2001, 184 p.
31. Grekhnev N. I. Geochemical transformation of hypogenic minerals in tailings of the south of the Far East. Ekologicheskaya geokhimiya. 2011, no 1 (11), pp. 17—23. [In Russ].

Подписка на рассылку

Раз в месяц Вы будете получать информацию о новом номере журнала, новых книгах издательства, а также о конференциях, форумах и других профессиональных мероприятиях.