Classification of man-made voids with regard to resource potential utilization for ecological rehabilitation of mining areas

Authors: Шеломенцев И. Г., Славиковская Ю. О.

The current call for mineral resources dictates expansion of mineral mining, on the one hand, and, on the other hand, aggravates ecological problems in the mining areas due to increased man-made pressing on the subsurface. The man-made voids generated by mineral mining are the source of aggressive ecological impact and, often, the origin of emergencies. Considering the fact that the mining industry is an urban element of economy, preservation and reclamation of lands, especially in the regions of high urban growth, is one of the critical tasks. In this regard, it is necessary to carry out ecological reclamation of man-made voids in order to meet standards of efficient and ecologically safe subsoil use to maintain required ecological property of mines at all stages of life span of mineral field development (in the course of actual mining and in the post-mining period). Based on the accomplished research, a new classification is proposed for grouping man-made voids by such critical criteria as: contact with ground surface; support method; life cycle (involvement in resource potential economy) and functional purpose. The classification is proposed for man-made voids formed by surface and underground mining of solid minerals. Then classification allows assessment and inventory man-made voids, as well as selection of their ecological rehabilitation.

Keywords: Solid mineral deposit, mining and processing plants, anthropogenic environmental impact, man-made voids, classification of man-made voids, pot-mining period, ecological reclamation of mining and processing plant territory, resource potential.
For citation:

Shelomentsev IG., Slavikovskaya YuO. Classification of man-made voids with regard to resource potential utilization for ecological rehabilitation of mining areas. MIAB. Mining Inf. Anal. Bull. 2019;(12):127-140. [In Russ]. DOI: 10.25018/0236-1493-2019-12-0-127-140.


The article is prepared in the framework of the Basic Research Program, Project No. 0405-2019-0005 in compliance with job scheduling plan for 2019–2021.

Issue number: 12
Year: 2019
Page number: 127-140
ISBN: 0236-1493
UDK: 622.882:622.2
DOI: 10.25018/0236-1493-2019-12-0-127-140
Article receipt date: 15.07.2019
Date of review receipt: 29.10.2019
Date of the editorial board′s decision on the article′s publishing: 11.11.2019
About authors:

I.G. Shelomentsev1, Junior Researcher, e-mail:,
Yu.O. Slavikovskaya1, Cand. Sci. (Econ.), Senior Researcher,
1 Institute of Mining of Ural Branch, Russian Academy of Sciences,
620075, Ekaterinburg, Russia.

For contacts:

Yu.O. Slavikovskaya, e-mail:


1. Slavikovskaya Yu. O. Economic damage as a tool for evaluating consequences of anthropogenic environmental impact of mining and processing plants. Nedropol'zovanie XXI vek. 2014, no 6, pp. 84—88. [In Russ].
2. Gornye nauki osvoenie i sokhranenie nedr Zemli. Pod red. K. N. Trubetskogo [Mining sciences: Development and preservation of the Earth’s interior. Trubetskoy K. N. (Ed.)], Moscow, Izd-vo Akad. gornykh nauk, 1997, 476 p.
3. Korchak A. V. Obosnovanie i razrabotka metodologii proektirovaniya stroitel'stva i povtornogo ispol'zovaniya podzemnykh sooruzheniy v slozhnykh gorno-geologicheskikh usloviyakh [Justification and development of procedure for design, construction and re-use of underground structures in complicated geological conditions], Doctor’s thesis, Moscow, MGGU, 1998, 46 p.
4. Umnov V. A. Ekonomicheskoe obosnovanie ratsional'nogo ispol'zovaniya podzemnogo prostranstva [Economic validation of efficient use of underground space], Doctor’s thesis, Moscow, MGGU, 2000, 35 p.
5. Portsevskiy A. K. Geomekhanicheskoe obosnovanie vybora tekhnologii podzemnoy dobychi rudy s posleduyushchim ispol'zovaniem pustot [Geomechanical assessment of underground ore mining technology with subsequent use of mined-out voids], Doctor’s thesis, Moscow, RGGU, 2006, 58 p.
6. Dublyanskiy V. N., Dublyanskaya G. N., Lavrov I. A. Klassifikatsiya, ispol'zovanie i okhrana podzemnykh prostranstv [Classification, use and protection of underground spaces], Ekaterinburg, UrO RAN, 2001, 196 p.
7. Kaplunov D. R., Radchenko D. N. Mined-out areas: Approaches to multipurpose use in complex integrated cycle of hard mineral mining. Gornyy zhurnal. 2016, no 5, pp. 28—33. [In Russ]. DOI:
8. Kaplunov D. R., Radchenko D. N., Lavenkov V. S. Safe conditions and environmentally balanced formation of developed spaces of the Earth'sinterior withintegrated development of solidmineraldeposits / Kombinirovannaya getekhnologiya: ustoychivoe i ekologicheski sbalansirovanoe osvoenie nedr: materialy VIII mezhdunarodnoy nauchno-tekhnicheskoy konferentsii, Magnitogorsk, 2015. Magnitogorsk, MGTU, 2015, pp. 20—21. [In Russ].
9. Slavikovskaya Yu. O. Ekologo-ekonomicheskie aspekty osvoeniya mineral'nykh resursov na urbanizirovannykh territoriyakh [Ekologo-ekonomicheskie aspekty osvoeniya mineral'nykh resursov na urbanizirovannykh territoriyakh], Ekaterinburg, IGD UrO RAN, 2012, 208 p.
10. Slavikovskaya Yu. O. Classification of man-made voids formed in mineral mining. Izvestiya vysshikh uchebnykh zavedeniy. Gornyy zhurnal. 2013, no 8, pp. 1—4. [In Russ].
11. Kutliakhmetov A. N. Sanitation problems environmental damage objects in the Republic of Bashkortostan. Okhrana okruzhayushchey sredy i prirodopol'zovanie. 2011, no 2, pp. 31—32. [In Russ].
12. Khayrutdinov M. M. The ways of improvement of development system with stowing the worked space. Izvestiya vysshikh uchebnykh zavedeniy. Gornyy zhurnal. 2007, no 11, pp. 40—43. [In Russ].
13. Elnikov V. N., Leyzerovich S. G., Uskov A. S. Experience in creating non-waste technology at the KMAruda plant. Gornaya promyshlennost'. 1991, no 5, pp. 6—10. [In Russ].
14. Gusev Yu. M. Resource-saving technologies for ore mining at the Maleevsky mine of the Zyryanovsky MPP (Kazzinc JSC). Izvestiya vysshikh uchebnykh zavedeniy. Gornyy zhurnal. 2008, no 11, pp. 20—22. [In Russ].
15. Konovalov A. B. Groundbreaking work in underground mines and prospects for their improvement. Gornyy zhurnal. 2001, no 7, pp. 3—7. [In Russ].
16. Uskov A. Kh. Research results and the introduction of pilot technology of hydraulic filling works. Gornyy zhurnal. 2008, no 4, pp. 131 [In Russ].
17. Mirzerkhanova Z. G. The organization ecological aspects of territories of placer gold deposits. Gornyy zhurnal. 2006, no 8, pp. 36—38. [In Russ].
18. Gaidin A. M. From geotechnology to geoesthetics. Gornyy zhurnal. 2009, no 4, pp. 72—75. [In Russ].
19. Gaidin A. M. Flooding open pit to revitalize the landscape. Izvestiya vysshikh uchebnykh zavedeniy. Gornyy zhurnal. 2008, no 1, pp. 80—82. [In Russ].
20. Gaidin A. M. Death of sulfur, the birth of lakes. The Chemical Journal. 2005, no 9, pp. 45—47. [In Russ].
21. Sredanovich A. V. Ecological reclamations in opencast mineral mining—Scientific framework (in terms of Almalyk Mining and Metallurgical Plant in the Republic of Uzbekistan). Marksheyderskiy vestnik. 2008, no 1, pp. 28—30. [In Russ].
22. Klapperikh Kh. Stable (continuous) use of space (on the issue of territory management). Gornyy informatsionno-analiticheskiy byulleten’. 2010, no 3, pp. 137—142. [In Russ].
23. Forster V., Gekkel' G. Sanitation in the mining regions of East Germany. Geoekologiya. 2009, no 5, pp. 409—424. [In Russ].
24. Semyachkov A. I., Slavikovskaya Yu. O., Drebenshtedt K. Ekologo-ekonomicheskie aspekty deyatel'nosti predpriyatiy gornoy promyshlennosti. [Environmental and economic aspects of mining enterprises]. Ekaterinburg, IE UrO RAN, 2013, 252 p.
25. Official website of the company Wismut GmbH, available at: (accessed 21.09.2019).
27. Edem Project.Official website of the company, available at: (accessed 21.09.2019).
26. Official website of the company InterContinental Shanghai Wonderland hotel, available at: (accessed 21.09.2019).\
28. Kuter N., Dilaver Z., Gül E. Determination of suitable plant species for reclamation at an abandoned coal mine area. International Journal of Mining, Reclamation and Environment. 2014;28(5):268—276. DOI: 10.1080/17480930.2014.932940.
29. Huanqing Li, Xiaozhao Li, Chee Kiong Soh An integrated strategy for sustainable development of the urban underground: From strategic, economic and societal aspects. Tunnelling and Underground Space Technology. 2015;55:67—82.
30. Reyes-Bozo L., Godoy-Faundez A., Herrera-Urbina R., Higueras P. L. Greening Chilean copper mining operations through industrial ecology strategies. Journal of Cleaner Production. 2014;84(1):1—9.
31. Mhlongo E. S., Amponsah-Dacosta F. A review of problems and solutions of abandoned mines in South Africa. International Journal of Mining, Reclamation and Environment. 2016;30 (4):279—294. DOI: 10/1080/17480930.2015.1044046.

Mining World Russia
Subscribe for our dispatch