On the issue of reducing geoecological risks at mining enterprises

The activities of mining enterprises have a negative impact on the geological environment, resulting in the destruction of the integrity of the natural environment. In order to reduce geoecological risks at mining enterprises, it is necessary to carry out large-scale targeted observations of the objects of the geological environment, as a result of which a tendency to the development of engineering-geological, hydrogeological processes will be revealed, their mechanism is revealed, and as a result, management methods are proposed. The main problem for coal and ore deposits is the problem of emergency water discharges, which are associated with the most common changes in the natural environment. These include changes in the hydrodynamic regime, pollution of ground and surface waters, activation of deformation processes, etc. To a greater extent, the problem of emergency water discharges is characteristic of the extraction of potash and salt ores, this is due to the solubility of halogen deposits that make up the salt mass. The main danger in the development of potash and salt deposits is associated with the unpredictability of irreversible flooding of the mine and irreparable loss of minerals. Water and brines penetrate through cracks, erode rocks, abundant water and brine inflows occur, as a result of which the mine is flooded with the subsequent collapse of the overlying rocks and, as a result, the formation of earth sinkholes on the surface. Based on the historiography of accidents during the development of salt deposits, the main causes of accidents are identified. The most promising methods of monitoring the continuity of the water-protective layer are considered. And also proposed measures to prevent emergency water seepage and protect the mine from total flooding. Such as plugging, the use of special bridges — “traps” and caissoning of workings to prevent and arrest water and brine inflows into the worked-out space. and hydraulic filling works used to protect inter-chamber pillars and water-protective strata.

Keywords: geoecological risks, mine, mine; inter-chamber pillars; brine inflows; water protection column, water breakthroughs, waterproofing bulkheads, aquifers, monitoring.
For citation:

Kulikova A.A., Ovchinnikova T.I. On the issue of reducing geoecological risks at mining enterprises. MIAB. Mining Inf. Anal. Bull. 2021;(2—1):251-262. [In Russ]. DOI: 10.25018/0236-14932021-21-0-251-262.

Acknowledgements:
Issue number: 2
Year: 2021
Page number: 251-262
ISBN: 0236-1493
UDK: 504.056+502.35+502.37+502.52
DOI: 10.25018/0236-1493-2021-21-0-251-262
Article receipt date: 14.12.2020
Date of review receipt: 28.12.2020
Date of the editorial board′s decision on the article′s publishing: 01.02.2021
About authors:

Kulikova A.A., Senior Lecturer, e-mail: alexaza_@mail.ru, NUST «MISiS», Moscow, Russia;
Ovchinnikova T.I., Dr. Sci. (Eng.), Head of Chair, e-mail: ovchinnikova_ti@mail.ru, NUST «MISiS», Moscow, Russia.

 

For contacts:

A.A. Kulikova, e-mail: alexaza_@mail.ru.

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