Overview of techniques and methods of processing the waste of stale clinkers of zinc production

This article presents an analysis of methods and approaches to the disposal of man– made waste — stale clinkers of zinc mining, which are accumulated in sufficiently large volumes in man-made dumps around the world. The research of scientists from a number of countries on the methods of their processing is considered in detail. As a result of the analysis, it was found that among the many described methods of recycling man-made waste from mining, in particular with regard to stale Ashisai clinkers, there is not a single integrated technological solution that differs in the completeness of processing or disposal. All attempts to process zinc clinker waste products involved re-enrichment or additional extraction with the formation of secondary dumps and tailings of enrichment. Stale clinkers began to form and accumulate in dumps from 1927 to 1995. Thus, in an open mountainous area in the Turkestan region near the village of Ashisai, stale clinkers remain stored in the dump in the amount of 7–7.5 million tons, having a negative impact on the environment. Based on the conducted research, the elemental and chemical composition of the technogenic dump was determined, according to the results of which it was found that the stale clinkers (slags) of zinc production contain in their chemical composition compounds of calcium, silicon, iron, aluminum, carbon and heavy non-ferrous metals such as zinc and lead. Based on the results of the research, a conclusion was formulated on the search for technological solutions for the utilization of man-made waste by its complex processing as secondary mineral raw materials, in particular as an iron-aluminum-silicate component of the raw material mixture in the production of Portland cement clinker.

Keywords: zinc mining dumps, man-made raw materials, stale clinker, zinc, lead, anthropogenic impact, dust pollution, technosphere safety, protection and environmental protection.
For citation:

Gapparov J., Syrlybekkyzy S., Filin A., Kolesnikov A., Zhatkanbayev Y. Overview of techniques and methods of processing the waste of stale clinkers of zinc production. MIAB. Mining Inf. Anal. Bull. 2024;(4):44-55. DOI: 10.25018/0236_1493_2024_4_0_44.

Issue number: 4
Year: 2024
Page number: 44-55
ISBN: 0236-1493
UDK: 628.511
DOI: 10.25018/0236_1493_2024_4_0_44
Article receipt date: 02.12.2023
Date of review receipt: 07.02.2024
Date of the editorial board′s decision on the article′s publishing: 10.03.2024
About authors:

Jaken Gapparov1, PhD Student, e-mail: zhakengapparov.94@mail.ru, ORCID ID: 0009-0000-0597-489С,
Samal Syrlybekkyzy1, PhD, Professor, e-mail: Samal.Syrlybekkyzy@yu.edu.kz, ORCID ID: 0000-0002-0260-0611,
Alexander Filin, Dr. Sci. (Eng.), Professor, NUST MISIS, 119049, Moscow, Russia, e-mail: aleks_filin@bk.ru, ORCID ID: 0000-0002-3015-5965,
Alexandr Kolesnikov2, Cand. Sci. (Eng.), Professor, e-mail: kas164@yandex.kz, ORCID ID: 0000-0002-8060-6234,
Yergazy Zhatkanbayev2, Cand. Sci. (Eng.), Assistant Professor, e-mail: ergazy-1980@mail.ru, ORCID ID: 0000-0001-6955-806X,
1 Sh. Yesenov Caspian University of Technology and Engineering, 130002, Aktau, Kazakhstan,
2 M. Auezov South Kazakhstan University, 160012, Shymkent, Kazakhstan.


For contacts:

Alexandr Kolesnikov, e-mail: kas164@yandex.kz.


1. Fechet R., Zlagnean M., Moanta A., Ciobanu L. Mining Wastes — sampling, processing and using in anufacture portland cement. Romanian Journal of Mineral Deposits. 2010, no. 84, pp. 67—70.

2. Сhanturia V. A., Shadrunova I. V., Gorlova O. E. Innovative processes of deep and complex processing of technogenic raw materials in the context of new economic challenges. Effektivnye tekhnologii proizvodstva tsvetnykh, redkikh i blagorodnykh metallov. Materialy Mezhdunarodnoy nauchnoprakticheskoy konferentsii [Efficient technologies for the production of non-ferrous, rare and precious metals. Materials of the International Scientific and Practical Conference], Almaty. 2018, pp. 7—13. [In Russ]. DOI: 10.31643/2018-7.45.

3. Kulikova А. А., Ovchinnikova T. I. A regional criterion for classifying mining regions as territories with the greatest exposure to geoecological changes. Sustainable Development of Mountain Territories. 2023, vol. 15, no. 1, pp. 27—34. [In Russ]. DOI: 10.21177/1998-4502-2023-15-1-27-34.

4. Krupskaya L., Kulikova E., Filatova M., Leonenko A. A Mathematical model for assessing the impact of a man-made system on an air basin. Ecology and Industry of Russia. 2023, no. 27(8), pp. 50—57. [In Russ]. DOI: 10.18412/1816-0395-2023-8-50-57.

5. Zinovieva O. M., Kolesnikova L. A., Merkulova A. M. & Smirnova N. A. Environmental risk management at mining enterprises. Ugol'. 2022, no. 3, pp. 76—80. [In Russ]. DOI: 10.18796/00415790-2022-3-76-80.

6. Filin A. E., Kurnosov I. Yu., Tertychnaya S. V., Kolesnikova L. A. Assessment of the effect of pulsed ventilation on irrigation dust deposition in mining and processing production. Ugol'. 2023, no. 11, pp. 120—124. [In Russ]. DOI: 10.18796/0041-5790-2023-11-120-124.

7. Jumasheva K., Syrlybekkyzy S., Serikbayeva A., Nurbaeva F., Kolesnkov A. Study the composition and environmental impact of sewage sludge. Journal of Ecological Engineering. 2023, vol. 24, no. 3, pp. 315—322.

8. Donaev A., Kolesnikov A., Shapalov Sh., Sarapagalieva B., Ivahnuk G. Studies of waste from the mining and metallurgical industry, with the determination of its impact on the life of the population.News of the National Academy of Sciences of the Republic of Kazakhstan, Series of Geology and Technical Sciences. 2022, no. 4, pp. 55—68.

9. Kozyrev E. N., Kondratiev Yu. I., Khulelidze K. K., Bogomolova N. S. Technology of extraction of lead and zinc from stale clinkers of zinc production. MIAB. Mining Inf. Anal. Bull. 2005, no. 3, pp. 280—282. [In Russ].

10. Gerasimova E. B., Melnikova L. A., Loseva A. V. Ecological safety of construction in singleindustry town. Construction Materials and Products. 2023, vol. 6, no. 3, pp. 59—78. DOI: 10.58224/ 2618-7183-2023-6-3-59-78.

11. Kolesnikov A. S., Serikbaev B. E., Zolkin A. L., Kenzhibaeva G. S., Isaev G. I., Botabaev N. E., Shapalov S. K., Kolesnikova O. G., Iztleuov G. M., Suigenbayeva A. Z., Kutzhanova A. N., Asylbekova D. D., Ashirbaev K. A., Alchinbaeva O. Z., Kolesnikova V. A. Thermodynamic modeling of chemical and phase transformations in a waelz process-slag — carbon system. Refractories and Industrial Ceramics. 2020, vol. 61, no. 3, pp. 289—292. DOI: 10.1007/s11148-020-00474-4.

12. Kozhakhmetov S. M. Issledovaniya v oblasti teorii i tekhnologii avtogennykh protsessov: Izbrannye trudy [Research in the field of theory and technology of autogenic processes. Selected works], Almaty, 2005, 400 p.

13. Mechev V. V., Myzenkov F. A., Kulenov A. S., Bagaev I. S., Gumarov E. Z., Glupov O. V., Kalnin E. I., Smailov S. D., Klyuev G. F. Copyright certificate USSR 1690393. 15.06.94. [In Russ].

14. Sanakulov K. S., Khasanov A. S. Pererabotka shlakov mednogo proizvodstva. Monografiya [Processing of copper production slags. Monograph], Tashkent, FAN, 2007, 238 p.

15. Tarasov A. V., Zak M. S. Extraction of valuable components from clinkers of zinc production. Nonferrous metallurgy. 1990, no. 6, pp. 46—48. [In Russ].

16. Belykh V. L. Technology of processing clinker of zinc production and depletion of converter slags. Tsvetnye Metally. 1991, no. 4, pp. 9. [In Russ].

17. Khasanov A. S., Sanakulov K. S., Atakhanov A. S. Process flow chart of complex processing of flag cenerated by Almalyk copper smeltery. Allerton Press Inc. Nеw York, 2004, pp. 6—8.

18. Vorona-Slivinskaya L. G. Regional plans for solid waste management: distinctive features of practice in Russia and EU countries. Construction Materials and Products. 2023, vol. 6, no. 3, pp. 98— 118. DOI: 10.58224/2618-7183-2023-6-3-98-118.

19. Volokitina I., Siziakova E., Fediuk R., Kolesnikov A. Development of a thermomechanical treatment mode for stainless-steel rings. Materials. 2022, vol. 15, no. 14, article 4930. DOI: 10.3390/ ma15144930.

20. Filin A. E., Kurnosov I. Yu., Kolesnikova L. A., Ovchinnikova T. I., Kolesnikov A. S. Description of the methodology for conducting an experiment on dust deposition of mining and metallurgical production. Ugol'. 2022, no. 9, pp. 67—72. [In Russ]. DOI: 10.18796/0041-5790-2022-9-67-72.

21. Dana-Adriana Iluţiu-Varvara Researching the hazardous potential of metallurgical solid wastes. Polish Journal of Environmental Studies. 2016, vol. 25, no. 1, no. 147—152. DOI: 10.15244/pjoes/ 60178.

22. Panarin I. I., Fediuk R. S., Vykhodtsev I. А., Vavrenyuk S. V., Klyuev A. V. Injection mortars based on composite cements for soil fixation. Construction Materials and Products. 2023, vol. 6, no. 4, pp. 15—29. [In Russ]. DOI: 10.58224/2618-7183-2023-6-4-15-29.

23. Peng Zh., Gregurek D., Wenzl C., White J. F. Slag metallurgy and metallurgical waste recycling. JOM. 2016, vol. 68, no. 9, pp. 2313—2315. [In Russ]. DOI: 10.1007/s11837-016-2047-2.

24. Desyatov A. M., Malinsky R. A., Mantsevich M. I. Energy-saving technology of clinker processing of the Chelyabinsk zinc plant. MIAB. Mining Inf. Anal. Bull. 2013, no. 8, pp. 192—195. [In Russ].

25. Ferreira W. L., Reis É. L., Lima R. M. F. Incorporation of residues from the minero-metallurgical industry in the production of clay—lime brick. Journal of Cleaner Production. 2015, vol. 87, pp. 505—510. DOI: 10.1016/j.jclepro.2014.09.013.

26. Toshkodirova R. E., Abdurakhmonov S. Clinker processing — zinc industrial waste. Universum: technical sciences. 2020, no. 11-1(80), pp. 78—81. [In Russ]. DOI: 10.32743/UniTech.2020.80.11-1. 78-81.

Our partners

Подписка на рассылку

Раз в месяц Вы будете получать информацию о новом номере журнала, новых книгах издательства, а также о конференциях, форумах и других профессиональных мероприятиях.