Impact of platinum production on ecology of brown forest soil

Platinum group metals are the promising resource material in the mining industry, and their demand is expected to grow year by year. The Northern Caucasus has a high potential of Pt metallogeny and noble metal production, including Pt. For predicting potential environmental adversities of Pt entrance from mining and processing waste, it is expedient to explore how the functions of soils are damaged in ecosystems. In the influence zone of test mines, the soil is generally brown forest soil. The model experiment illustrates the impact of Pt at concentrations of 0.01, 0.1, 1, 10 and 100 mg/kg on the ecology of brown forest weakly unsaturated soils. The biological parameters of the soil get changed, namely, total number of bacteria, activity of catalase and dehydrogenase, viability and root length of radish polluted with Pt. The most sensitive parameters are the total number of bacteria, and the radish viability and root length. Contamination with Pt at concentrations of 0.01 and 0.1 mg/kg injuries the main functions of the brown forest soil. The higher contents of Pt in soil disables all soil functions. The results are usable in development of Pt MAC values for soil.

Keywords: platinum mines, soil, pollution, platinum, biotesting, sustainability, ecological functions of soils, Caucasus, prediction, eco-toxicity.
For citation:

Timoshenko A. N., Kolesnikov S. I., Evstegneeva N. A., Minnikova T. V., Kazeev K. Sh. Impact of platinum production on ecology of brown forest soil. MIAB. Mining Inf. Anal. Bull. 2024;(5):90-103. [In Russ]. DOI: 10.25018/0236_1493_2024_5_0_90.


The study was supported by the Russian Science Foundation, Grant No. 22-74-00080,

Issue number: 5
Year: 2024
Page number: 90-103
ISBN: 0236-1493
UDK: 57.044; 631.46
DOI: 10.25018/0236_1493_2024_5_0_90
Article receipt date: 15.01.2024
Date of review receipt: 22.02.2024
Date of the editorial board′s decision on the article′s publishing: 10.04.2024
About authors:

A.N. Timoshenko1, Cand. Sci. (Biol.), Leading Researcher, e-mail:, ORCID ID: 0000-0002-5733-8796,
S.I. Kolesnikov1, Dr. Sci. (Agr.), Professor, Head of Chair, e-mail:, ORCID ID: 0000-0001-5860-8420,
N.A. Evstegneeva1, Graduate Student, e-mail:, ORCID ID: 0000-0003-3133-7629,
T.V. Minnikova1, Cand. Sci. (Biol.), Leading Researcher, e-mail:, ORCID ID: 0000-0002-9453-7137, ORCID ID: 0000-0001-5589-2171,
K.Sh. Kazeev1, Dr. Sci. (Geogr.), Professor, Director, e-mail:, ORCID ID: 0000-0002-0252-6212,
1 D.I. Ivanovsky Academy of Biology and Biotechnology, Southern Federal University, 344090, Rostov-on-Don, Russia.


For contacts:

A.N. Timoshenko, e-mail:


1. Ryan G. Energy management by platinum companies in South Africa: exploring mitigation strategies for reducing the impact of electricity price increases. The 6th International Platinum Conference, ‘Platinum — Metal for the Future’, The Southern African Institute of Mining and Metallurgy. 2014, pp. 299—308.

2. Bogush I. A., Cherkashin V. I. Sources of noble metals (Au, Pt, Pd) in the North Caucasus. Litosfera. 2019, no. 19, pp. 465—471. [In Russ]. DOI: 10.24930/1681-9004-2019-19-3-465-471.

3. Bogush I. A., Ryabov G. V., Burtsev A. A. Pyrites of the North Caucasus. Prospects of ore-bearing capacity of the Khudessky deposit. Geology and geophysics of Russian South. 2021, vol. 11, no. 3, pp. 6—16. [In Russ]. DOI: 10.46698/VNC.2021.80.87.001.

4. Rauch S., Fatoki O. Impact of platinum group element emissions from mining and production activities. Platinum Metals in the Environment. 2015, pp. 19—29. DOI: 10.1007/978-3-662-44559-4_2.

5. Almécija C., Cobelo-García A., Wepener V., Prego R. Platinum group elements in stream sediments of mining zones: The Hex River (Bushveld Igneous Complex, South Africa). Journal of African Earth Sciences. 2017, vol. 129, pp. 934—943. DOI: 10.1016/j.jafrearsci.2017.02.002.

6. Erasmus J. H., Malherbe W., Zimmermann S., Lorenz A. W., Nachev M., Wepener V., Sures B., Smit N. J. Metal accumulation in riverine macroinvertebrates from a platinum mining region. Science of the Total Environment. 2020, vol. 703, article 134738. DOI: 10.1016/j.scitotenv.2019.134738.

7. Rauch S., Fatoki O. S. Anthropogenic platinum enrichment in the vicinity of mines in the Bushveld Igneous Complex, South Africa. Water, Air, & Soil Pollution. 2013, vol. 224, pp. 1—8. DOI: 10.1007/s11270-012-1395-y.

8. Gorelkina A. K., Timoshchuk I. V., Golubeva N. S., Belyaeva O. V., Mikhailova E. S. Reduction of impact of mining on water ecosystems. MIAB. Mining Inf. Anal. Bull. 2023, no. 7, pp. 64—75. [In Russ]. DOI: 10.25018/0236_1493_2023_7_0_64.

9. Evstegneeva N. A., Kolesnikov S. I., Minnikova T. V., Timoshenko A. N. Toxicity estimate of heavy metals, metalloids and nonmetals contained in mineral mining waste. MIAB. Mining Inf. Anal. Bull. 2023, no. 5-1, pp. 73—85. [In Russ]. DOI: 10.25018/0236_1493_2023_51_0_73.

10. Moshchenko D. I., Kolesnikov S. I., Kuzina A. A., Mezhenkov A. A., Litvinov Yu. A. Prognostic map charts of ecosystem functioning violation in soil in the Central Ciscaucasia and the Caucasus in contamination with different copper concentrations. MIAB. Mining Inf. Anal. Bull. 2023, no. 5-1, pp. 104—116. [In Russ]. DOI: 10.25018/0236_1493_2023_51_0_104.

11. Kulikova А. А., Ovchinnikova T. I. A regional criterion for classifying mining regions as territories with the greatest exposure to geoecological changes. Sustainable Development of Mountain Territories. 2023, vol. 15, no. 1, pp. 27—34. [In Russ]. DOI: 10.21177/1998-4502-2023-15-1-27-34.

12. Zuzolo D., Cicchella D., Doherty A. L., Albanese S., Lima A., De Vivo B. The distribution of precious metals (Au, Ag, Pt, and Pd) in the soils of the Campania Region (Italy). Journal of Geochemical Exploration. 2018, vol. 192, pp. 33—44. DOI: 10.1016/j.gexplo.2018.03.009.

13. Gawrońska H., Przybysz A., Szalacha E., Pawlak K., Brama K., Miszczak A., StankiewiczKosyl M., Gawroński S. W. Platinum uptake, distribution and toxicity in Arabidopsis thaliana L. plants. Ecotoxicology and Environmental Safety. 2018, vol. 147, pp. 982—989. DOI: 10.1016/j.ecoenv. 2017.09.065.

14. Egorova K. S., Sinjushin A. A., Posvyatenko A. V., Eremin D. B., Kashin A. S., Galushko A. S., Ananikov V. P. Evaluation of phytotoxicity and cytotoxicity of industrial catalyst components (Fe, Cu, Ni, Rh and Pd). A case of lethal toxicity of a rhodium salt in terrestrial plants. Chemosphere. 2019, vol. 223, pp. 738—747. DOI: 10.1016/j.chemosphere.2019.02.043.

15. Qiang H., Li R., Ju X., Zhu R. Determination of platinum group elements in human urine and hair samples by inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry. International Conference on Biomedical Engineering and Biotechnology, IEEE 2012. 2012, pp. 1318—1321. DOI: 10.1109/iCBEB.2012.134.

16. Kumar P. V., Jelastin Kala S. M., Prakash K. S. Green synthesis derived Pt-nanoparticles using Xanthium strumarium leaf extract and their biological studies. Journal of Environmental Chemical Engineering. 2019, vol. 7, no. 3, article 103146. DOI: 10.1016/j.jece.2019.103146.

17. Lapasam A., Mawnai I. L., Banothu V., Kaminsky W., Kollipara M. R. Ruthenium, rhodium and iridium complexes containing pyrimidine based thienyl pyrazoles: Synthesis and antibacterial studies. Journal of Organometallic Chemistry. 2020, vol. 911, article 121155. DOI: 10.1016/j.jorganchem.2020.121155.

18. Baartzes N., Jordaan A., Warner D. F., Combrinck J., Taylor D., Chibale K., Smith G. S. Antimicrobial evaluation of neutral and cationic iridium (III) and rhodium (III) aminoquinoline-benzimidazole hybrid complexes. European Journal of Medicinal Chemistry. 2020, vol. 206, article 112694. DOI: 10.1016/j. ejmech.2020.112694.

19. Iavicoli I., Leso V., Beezhold D. H., Shvedova A. A. Nanotechnology in agriculture: Opportunities, toxicological implications, and occupational risks. Toxicology and Applied Pharmacology. 2017, vol. 329, pp. 96—111. DOI: 10.1016/j.taap.2017.05.025.

20. Schertzinger G., Zimmermann S., Grabner D., Sures B. Assessment of sublethal endpoints after chronic exposure of the nematode Caenorhabditis elegans to palladium, platinum and rhodium. Environmental Pollution. 2017, vol. 230, pp. 31—39. DOI: 10.1016/j.envpol.2017.06.040.

21. Zhao X., Han L., Xiao J., Wang L., Liang T., Liao X. A comparative study of the physiological and biochemical properties of tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum M.) and maize (Zea mays L.) under palladium stress. Science of the Total Environment. 2020, vol. 705, article 135938. DOI: 10.1016/j. scitotenv.2019.135938 .

22. Maryška L., Jindrichova B., Siegel J., Zaruba K., Burketova L. Impact of palladium nanoparticles on plant and its fungal pathogen. A case study: Brassica napus—Plenodomus lingam. AoB Plants. 2023, vol. 15, no. 2, plad004. DOI: 10.1093/aobpla/plad004.

23. World Reference Base for Soil Resources. International soil classification system for naming soils and creating legends for soil maps. Schad P., van Huysteen C., Michéli E. (Eds.). 4th edition, International Union of Soil Sciences (IUSS), Vienna, Austria, 2022, 234 p.

24. Barsova N., Yakimenko O., Tolpeshta I., Motuzova G. Current state and dynamics of heavy metal soil pollution in Russian Federation—A review. Environmental Pollution. 2019, vol. 249, pp. 200—207. DOI: 10.1016/j.envpol.2019.03.020.

25. Greenwood N. N., Earnshaw A., Hückmann K. Chemie der elemente, vol. 1. Weinheim, VcH, 1988.

26. Kolesnikov S. I., Kazeev K. Sh., Akimenko Yu. V. Development of regional standards for pollutants in the soil using biological parameters. Environmental Monitoring and Assessment. 2019, vol. 191, no. 9. DOI: 10.1007/s10661-019-7718-3.

27. Maboeta M. S., Claassens S., Rensburg L. V., Rensburg P. J. The effects of platinum mining on the environment from a soil microbial perspective. Water, Air, and Soil Pollution. 2006, no. 175, pp. 149—161. DOI: 10.1007/s11270-006-9122-1.

28. Chlumsky O., Purkrtova S., Michova H., Sykorova H., Slepicka P., Fajstavr D., Ulbrich P., Viktorova J., Demnerova K. Antimicrobial properties of palladium and platinum nanoparticles. A new tool for combating food-borne pathogens. International Journal of Molecular Sciences. 2021, vol. 22, no. 15, article 7892. DOI: 10.3390/ijms22157892.

29. Shar S., Reith F., Ball A. S. Shahsavari E. Long-term impact of gold and platinum on microbial diversity in Australian soils. Microbial Ecology. 2021, no. 81, pp. 977—989. DOI: 10.1007/s00248020-01663-x.

30. Timoshenko A., Kolesnikov S., Kabakova V., Evstegneeva N., Minnikova T., Kazeev K., Minkina T. Assessment of soil tolerance towards contamination with platinum nanoparticles by biodiagnostic methods. Eurasian Soil Science. 2023, no. 8, pp. 997—1006. [In Russ]. DOI: 10.31857/ S0032180X23600221.

31. Zamulina I. V., Gorovtsov A. V., Minkina T. M., Mandzhieva S. S., Burachevskaya M. V., Bauer T. V. Soil organic matter and biological activity under long-term contamination with copper. Environ Geochem Health. 2022, vol. 44, pp. 387—398. DOI: 10.1007/s10653-021-01044-4.

32. Shar S., Shahsavaria E., Reithc F., Alghamdib O. A., Yamanib H. A., Al Judaibib A., Donnere E., Vasileiadisf S., Ball A. S. Dose-related changes in respiration and enzymatic activities in soils amended with mobile platinum and gold. Applied Soil Ecology. 2021, vol. 157, article 103727. DOI: 10.1016/j.apsoil.2020.103727.

33. Kołton A., Czaja M. A. Influence of platinum ions on the germination and seedling root growth of different plant species. Geology Geophysics & Environment. 2014, vol. 40, pp. 343—348. DOI: 10.7494/geol.2014.40.4.343.

34. Rahman M. S., Chakraborty A., Mazumdar S., Nandi N. C., Bhuiyan M. N. I., Alauddin S. M., Khan I. A., Hossain M. J. Effects of poly(vinylpyrrolidone) protected platinum nanoparticles on seed germination and growth performance of Pisum sativum. Nano-Structures Nano-Objects. 2020, vol. 21, article 100408. DOI: 10.1016/j.nanoso.2019.100408.

35. Savignan L., Faucher S., Chéry P., Lespes G. Platinum group elements contamination in soils: Review of the current state. Chemosphere. 2021, vol. 271, article 129517. DOI: 10.1016/j.chemosphere.2020.129517.

36. Kolesnikov S., Timoshenko А., Minnikova T., Tsepina N., Kazeev K., Akimenko Y., Shuvaeva V., Rajput V. D., Mandzhieva S., Sushkova S., Minkina T., Dudnikova T., Mazarji M., Zhadobin A., Alamri S., Siddiqui M. H., Singh R. K. Impact of metal-based nanoparticles on cambisol microbial functionality, enzyme activity, and plant growth. Plants. 2021, vol. 10, no. 10, article 2080. DOI: 10.3390/ plants10102080.

37. Shestopalov V. L., Fomenko V. A., Sokolov A. A., Miroshnikov A. S. Comparative analysis of deformation methods for monitoring seismic activity in the mountainous regions of the Black Sea coast and Kamchatka. Sustainable Development of Mountain Territories. 2021, vol. 13, no. 4 (50), pp. 535—543. [In Russ]. DOI: 10.21177/1998-4502-2021-13-4-535-543.

38. Kulikova А. А., Ovchinnikova T. I. A regional criterion for classifying mining regions as territories with the greatest exposure to geoecological changes.Sustainable Development of Mountain Territories. 2023, vol. 15, no. 1, pp. 27—34. [In Russ]. DOI: 10.21177/1998-4502-2023-15-1-27-34.

39. Shabanov M. V., Marichev M. S., Mangiyeva S. S., Sokolov A. A. Chemozem formation under conditions of prolong exposure to aero-industrial emissions from a mining and smelting plant. Sustainable Development of Mountain Territories. 2023, vol. 15, no. 3. [In Russ], pp. 727—740. DOI: 10.21177/ 1998-4502-2023-15-3-727-740.

40. Fomenko V. A., Sokolov A. A., Lolaev A. B., Aimbetova I. O. Some results of the work on the evaluation of radon emanations at Unal tailings. Sustainable Development of Mountain Territories. 2022, vol. 14, no. 4, pp. 576—585. [In Russ]. DOI: 10.21177/1998-4502-2022-14-4-576-585.

Our partners

Подписка на рассылку

Раз в месяц Вы будете получать информацию о новом номере журнала, новых книгах издательства, а также о конференциях, форумах и других профессиональных мероприятиях.