Influence of hydrogeology at Unal tailings pond on ecosystem pollution with heavy metals

Transformation of a nature-and-technology system (NTS) is a multi-stage process, and it is possible that a manmade envelope of a commercial value appears at a certain time. On the one hand, this explains the secondary contamination of rivers with bottom sediments, and, on the other hand, it raises a question on the relevance of proper monitoring of NTS. The article describes the behavior and transformation of the ecosystem at Unal tailings pond for the recent ten years. The risk assessment at the complex nature-and-technology systems should use an integrated multi-factor analysis with subsequent managerial inferences. The implemented research points at the significant part taken by the complex and branched river system in the Unal hollow in spreading of heavy metals and in pollution of the local ecosystem with them. It is recommended on improvement of monitoring representativeness at such NTS, and on creation of the required data base of instrumental measurements, which can enable detection of the most affected technology and nature sites. The need for the systematic monitoring for the comprehensive exploration and evolution staging of a complex nature-and-technology system is proved as a case-study of Unal NTS.

Keywords: techno genesis, tailings pond, river system, nature-and-technology system, pollutants, migration, environment, hydrogeology.
For citation:

Makovozova Z. E., Sokolov A. A., Fomenko V. A., Sarbaeva M. T. Influence of hydrogeology at Unal tailings pond on ecosystem pollution with heavy metals. MIAB. Mining Inf. Anal. Bull. 2023;(6):126-138. [In Russ]. DOI: 10.25018/0236_1493_2023_6_0_126.


The research was carried out at the Southern Federal University at the expense of the Russian Science Foundation (Project No. RNF/23-37-GL, No. 23-77-00015).

Issue number: 6
Year: 2023
Page number: 126-138
ISBN: 0236-1493
UDK: 504.062.2
DOI: 10.25018/0236_1493_2023_6_0_126
Article receipt date: 20.04.2023
Date of review receipt: 02.05.2023
Date of the editorial board′s decision on the article′s publishing: 10.05.2023
About authors:

Z.E. Makovozova, Cand. Sci. (Geol. Mineral.), Assistant Professor, Head of Chair, North Caucasian Institute of Mining and Metallurgy (State Technological University), 362021, Vladikavkaz, Russia, e-mail:, ORCID ID: 0009-0000-3555-4394,
A.A. Sokolov1, Cand. Sci. (Eng.), Assistant Professor, Head of Chair, e-mail:, ORCID ID: 0000-0003-3022-0883,
V.A. Fomenko1, Researcher, e-mail:, ORCID ID: 0000-0003-4725-3673,
M.T. Sarbaeva, Ph.D., Senior Lecturer, Khoja Akhmet Yassawi International Kazakh-Turkish University, Turkestan, Republic of Kazakhstan, e-mail:, ORCID ID: 0000-0003-3704-9046,
1 Branch of Southern Federal University in Gelendzhik, Gelendzhik, Russia.


For contacts:

M.T. Sarbaeva, e-mail:


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